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On sectors, the scales included logarithmic numbers, sines, and tangents.
Finally, unlike the other styles of sectors, the English style provided tools for trigonometry (tangent, sine, and secant) and for navigation (rhumbs and longitude).
Each required an α2,3-linked sialic acid on the terminal galactose of a neutral saccharide core, and they shared the following rank-order potency of binding: G(nonbinders).
The laboratory synthesis of complex organic molecules relies heavily on the introduction and manipulation of functional groups, such as carbon–oxygen or carbon–halogen bonds; carbon–hydrogen bonds are far less reactive and harder to functionalize selectively.
The idea of C–H functionalization, in which C–H bonds are modified at will instead of the functional groups, represents a paradigm shift in the standard logic of organic synthesis.
In contrast, the 4- and 7-deoxysialic acid derivatives supported sialoadhesin binding at near control levels (the other derivatives did not support binding).
These data are consistent with sialoadhesin binding to one face of the sialic acid moiety, whereas MAG (and SMP) may have more complex binding sites or may bind sialic acids only in the context of more restricted oligosaccharide conformations.
For example, selectins bind to oligosaccharides bearing truncated sialic acids (12) or appropriately placed anionic groups (sulfates, carboxylic acids) otherwise unrelated to the sialic acid structure (13-16).