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The Xerox Alto (and later Xerox Star) was an early personal computer developed at Xerox PARC in 1973.
Although many GUI operating systems are controlled by using a mouse, the keyboard can also be used with keyboard shortcuts or arrow keys.
The interface developments described, below, have been summarized and omit many details in the interest of brevity.
The history of the graphical user interface, understood as the use of graphic icons and a pointing device to control a computer, covers a five-decade span of incremental refinements, built on some constant core principles.
Several vendors have created their own windowing systems based on independent code, but with basic elements in common that define the WIMP "window, icon, menu and pointing device" paradigm.
Much of the early research was based on how young children learn.